Jeffries Mvenge worked as a locum at the trust in 2008 after he lied on a registration document.
But an investigation by the General Medical Council (GMC) uncovered his deception and, in June last year, a Fitness to Practice Panel struck his name from the Medical Register for five years.
Dr Mvenge, now of Angel Close, Edmonton, north London, took his case to the High Court in a bid to overturn that decision.
But, despite expressing sympathy with the doctor’s plight, a senior judge said the GMC panel was entitled to take a serious view of what he had done.
Mr Justice Cranston told the court Mvenge came to the UK as a student in 1997 and, a year later, was given leave to stay until 2003. But, rather than re-apply when that visa ended, Dr Mvenge became an "illegal overstayer".
Dr Mvenge registered with the GMC in 2007. He was given a clinical attachment at Derby Hospitals NHS Trust in 2008, followed by a position as "a locum and senior house officer".
But, later that year, he applied for a driving licence, and the DVLA spotted that his passport was a fake. They reported him to the police and he was arrested and jailed for 10 months at Derby Crown Court in August 2008 after admitting possessing a false identity document.
While in prison he was granted asylum but shortly after he was released the GMC "erased" his name from their register for five years.
Representing himself at the High Court, Dr Mvenge admitted carrying out the deceptions, but said he was motivated by fear of going back to Zimbabwe, where he said he would be tortured for coming from "a political family". – Derbyshire