At least four people have been killed and an unknown number injured, according to aid agencies.
The latest earthquake hit near the town of Namche Bazaar, near Mount Everest.
The US Geological Survey said it had a magnitude of 7.3. An earthquake on 25 April, centred in western Nepal, had a magnitude of 7.8.
The latest tremor was felt in northern India and Bangladesh.
In the Nepalese capital Kathmandu, which was badly damaged last month, people rushed out of buildings as the quake struck at 12:35 local time (07:50 GMT).
The BBC’s Yogita Limaye, who was in Nepal’s mountains when the latest earthquake struck, tweeted: “We’re safe. Did feel the earth shake for quite a long time. Saw dust and stones flying off mountain near by.”
She told BBC World News: “The earth shook and it shook for a pretty long time.
“I can completely understand the sense of panic. We have been seeing tremors: it’s been two and a half weeks since the first quake.
“But this one really felt like it went on for a really long time. People have been terrified.”
At least four people were killed in the town of Chautara, east of the capital, Kathmandu, where a number of buildings are reported to have collapsed.
The International Organisation for Migration said bodies were being pulled from rubble there.
People rushed from buildings in Kathmandu as the quake struck at 12:35 local time (07:50 GMT).
The epicentre of the latest earthquake was 83km (52 miles) east of Kathmandu, in a rural area close to the Chinese border.
It struck at a depth of 18.5km (11.5 miles), according to the US Geological Survey.
The 25 April quake was 15km (9.3 miles) deep. Shallower earthquakes are more likely to cause more damage at the surface.-BBC