New Draft Constitution

Full Draft Constitution

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CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE

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(DRAFT 17 JULY 2012)

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                        —g c h

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CONSTITUTION OF Zimbabwe

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arrangement of sections

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chapter 1

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Founding Provisions

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     Preamble.

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Section

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    1.   The Republic.

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    2.   Supremacy of Constitution.

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    3.   Founding values and principles.

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    4.   National Flag, National Anthem, Public Seal and National Coat of Arms.

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    5.   Tiers of government.

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    6.   Languages.

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    7.   Promotion of public awareness of Constitution.

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Chapter 2

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National Objectives

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2.1.   Objectives to guide all institutions and agencies of State and Government.

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2.2.   Good governance.

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2.3.   National unity, peace and stability.

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2.4.   Fostering of fundamental rights and freedoms.

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2.5.   Foreign policy.

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2.6.   Development and empowerment.

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2.7.   Food security.

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2.8.   Culture.

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2.9.   Gender balance.

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2.10.  Fair regional representation.

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2.11.  Children.

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2.12.  Youth.

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2.13.  Elderly persons.

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2.14.  Persons with disabilities.

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2.15.  War veterans.

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2.16.  Work and labour relations.

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2.17.  Protection of the family.

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2.18.  Marriage.

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2.19.  Education.

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2.20.  Shelter.

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2.21.  Health services.

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2.22.  Social welfare.

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2.23.  Legal aid.

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2.24.  Sporting and recreational facilities.

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2.25.  Preservation of traditional knowledge.

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2.26.  Domestication of international instruments.

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Chapter 3

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Citizenship

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3.1.   Zimbabwean citizenship.

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3.2.   Citizenship by birth.

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3.3.   Citizenship by descent.

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3.4.   Citizenship by registration.

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3.5.   Revocation of citizenship.

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3.6.   Retention of citizenship despite marriage or dissolution of marriage.

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3.7.   Citizenship and Immigration Board.

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3.8.   Powers of Parliament in regard to citizenship.

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3.8.   Continuation and restoration of previous citizenship.

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Chapter 4

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Declaration of Rights

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Part 1

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Application and Interpretation of Chapter 4

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4.1.   Duty to respect fundamental human rights.

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4.2.   Application of Chapter 4.

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4.3.   Interpretation of Chapter 4.

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4.4.   Chapter 4 does not preclude existence of other rights.

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Part 2

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Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms

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4.5.   Right to life.

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4.6.   Right to personal liberty.

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4.7.   Rights of arrested and detained persons.

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4.8.   Right to human dignity.

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4.9.   Right to personal security.

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4.10.  Freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

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4.11.  Freedom from slavery or servitude

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4.12.  Freedom from forced or compulsory labour.

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4.13.  Equality and non-discrimination.

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4.14.  Right to privacy.

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4.15.  Freedom of assembly and association.

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4.16.  Freedom to demonstrate and petition.

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4.17.  Freedom of conscience.

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4.18.  Freedom of expression and freedom of the media.

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4.19.  Access to information.

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4.20.  Language and culture.

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4.21.  Freedom of profession, trade or occupation.

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4.22.  Labour rights.

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4.23.  Freedom of movement and residence.

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4.24.  Political rights.

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4.25.  Right to administrative justice.

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4.26.  Right to a fair hearing.

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4.27.  Rights of accused persons.

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4.28.  Property rights.

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4.29.  Rights to agricultural land.

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4.30.  Environmental rights.

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4.31.  Freedom from arbitrary eviction.

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4.32.  Right to education.

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4.33.  Right to health care.

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4.34.  Right to food and water.

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4.35.  Marriage rights.

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Part 3

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Elaboration of Certain Rights

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4.36.  Application of Part 3.

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4.37.  Rights of women.

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4.38.  Rights of children.

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4.39.  Rights of the elderly.

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4.40.  Rights of persons with disabilities.

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4.41.  Rights of liberation war veterans.

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Part 4

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Enforcement of Rights

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4.42.  Enforcement of rights.

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PART 5

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Limitation of Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms

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4.43.  Limitation of rights and freedoms.

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4.44.  Limitations during public emergency.

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chapter 5

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The Executive

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part 1

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Executive Authority

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5.1.   Executive authority.

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Part 2

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The President and Vice-Presidents

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5.2.   The President.

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5.3.   Duty of President to uphold Constitution.

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5.4.   Qualifications for election as President and Vice-Presidents.

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5.5.   Election of President and Vice-Presidents.

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5.6.   Challenge to presidential election.

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5.7.   Assumption of office by President and Vice-Presidents.

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5.8.   Term of office of President and Vice-Presidents.

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5.9.   Resignation of President or Vice-President.

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5.10.  Removal of President or Vice-President from office.

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5.11.  Presidential immunity.

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5.12.  Functions of Vice-Presidents

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5.13.  Acting President.

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5.14.  Succession in event of death, resignation or incapacity of President or Vice-President.

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5.15.  Remuneration of President and Vice-Presidents.

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5.16.  President and Vice-Presidents and former office-holders not to hold other office or employment.

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Part 3

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Ministers, Deputy Ministers and Cabinet

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5.17.  Appointment of Ministers and Deputy Ministers.

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5.18.  Cabinet.

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5.19.  Conduct of Vice-Presidents, Ministers and Deputy Ministers.

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5.20.  Accountability of Vice-Presidents and Ministers and Deputy Ministers.

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5.21.  Tenure of office of Ministers and Deputy Ministers.

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5.22.  Vote of no confidence in Government.

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Part 4

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Executive Functions

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5.23.  Executive functions of President and Cabinet.

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5.24.  War and peace.

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5.25.  Power of mercy.

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5.26.  States of public emergency.

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Part 5

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Attorney-General

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5.27.  Attorney-General.

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5.28.  Removal from office of Attorney-General.

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Chapter 6

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The Legislature

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Part 1

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Legislative Authority

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6.1.   The Legislature.

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6.2.   Nature and extent of legislative authority.

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Part 2

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Nature and Role of Parliament

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6.3.   Parliament.

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6.4.   Role of Parliament.

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Part 3

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The Senate

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6.5.   Composition of Senate.

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6.6.   Qualifications and disqualifications for election as Senator.

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6.7.   President of Senate.

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6.8.   Deputy President of Senate.

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Part 3

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The National Assembly

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6.9.   Composition of National Assembly.

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6.10.  Qualifications and disqualifications for election to National Assembly.

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6.11.  Speaker of National Assembly.

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6.12.  Deputy Speaker of National Assembly.

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Part 4

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Tenure of Members of Parliament

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6.13.  Oath of member of Parliament.

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6.14.  Tenure of seat of member of Parliament.

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Part 5

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Legislative and Other Powers

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6.15.  Powers and functions of Senate and National Assembly.

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6.16.  Acts of Parliament and procedure for their enactment.

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6.17.  Commencement of Acts of Parliament.

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6.18.  Enrolment of Acts of Parliament.

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6.19.  Subsidiary legislation.

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Part 6

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Procedure in Parliament

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6.20.  Head of Parliament.

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6.21.  Persons presiding in Parliament.

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6.22.  Quorum in Parliament.

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6.23.  Voting and right of audience in Parliament.

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6.24.  Standing Orders.

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6.25.  Presidential addresses and messages to Parliament.

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6.26.  Public access to and involvement in Parliament.

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6.27.  Validity of proceedings in Parliament.

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Part 7

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Duration, Dissolution and Sittings of Parliament

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6.28.  Duration and dissolution of Parliament.

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6.29.  General election resulting from dissolution of Parliament.

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6.30.  First sitting of Parliament following general election.

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6.31.  Sittings and recess periods.

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6.32.  Lapsing of Bills, motions, petitions and other business on dissolution of Parliament.

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Part 8

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General Matters Relating to Parliament

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6.33.  Privileges and immunities of Parliament.

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6.34.  Right to petition Parliament.

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6.35.  Venue of Parliament.

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6.36.  Committee on Standing Rules and Orders.

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6.37.  Parliamentary Legal Committee.

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6.38.  Remuneration of President of Senate, Speaker and members of Parliament.

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6.39.  Clerk of Parliament and other staff.

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Chapter 7

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Elections

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Part 1

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Electoral Systems and Processes

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7.1.   Principles of electoral system.

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7.2.   Conduct of elections and referendums.

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7.3.   Electoral Law.

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Part 2

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Timing of Elections

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7.4.   Timing of elections.

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7.5.   Filling of electoral vacancies.

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Part 3

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Delimitation of Electoral Boundaries

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7.6.   Number of constituencies and wards.

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7.7.   Delimitation of electoral boundaries.

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CHAPTER 8

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The Judiciary and the Courts

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Part 1

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The Court System

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8.1.   Judicial authority.

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8.2.   The judiciary.

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8.3.   Independence of judiciary.

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8.4.   Principles guiding judiciary.

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8.5.   Constitutional Court.

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8.6.   Jurisdiction of Constitutional Court.

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8.7.   Supreme Court.

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8.8.   Jurisdiction of Supreme Court.

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8.9.   High Court.

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8.10.  Jurisdiction of High Court.

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8.11.  Labour Court.

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8.12.  Administrative Court.

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8.13.  Other courts and tribunals.

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8.14.  Powers of courts in constitutional matters.

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8.15.  Inherent powers of Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and High Court.

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Part 2

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Appointment and Tenure of Members of Judiciary

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8.16.  Qualifications of judges of Constitutional Court.

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8.17.  Qualifications of judges of Supreme Court.

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8.18.  Qualifications of judges of High Court, Labour Court and Administrative Court.

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8.19.  Appointment of judges.

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8.20.  Acting judicial appointments.

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8.21.  Appointment of magistrates and other members of judiciary.

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8.22.  Judicial officers not to be appointed to more than one court.

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8.23.  Judicial appointments to reflect society.

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8.24.  Oath of office.

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8.25.  Tenure of office of judges.

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8.26.  Removal of judges from office.

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8.27.  Conditions of service and tenure of members of judiciary.

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Part 3

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Judicial Service Commission

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8.28.  Establishment and composition of Judicial Service Commission.

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8.29.  Functions of Judicial Service Commission.

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8.30.  Transparency of proceedings of Judicial Service Commission.

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Part 4

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General

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8.29.  Law to be administered.

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8.30.  Criminal jurisdiction of courts.

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Chapter 9

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Principles of Public Administration and Leadership

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9.1.   Basic values and principles governing public administration.

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9.2.   State-controlled commercial entities.

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9.3.   Responsibilities of public officers and principles of leadership.

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9.4.   Terms of office of heads of statutory bodies and other entities.

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9.5.   Legislation to enforce Chapter 9.

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CHAPTER 10

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Civil Service

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10.1.  Civil Service.

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10.2.  Conduct of members of Civil Service.

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10.3.  Minister responsible for Civil Service.

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10.4.  Establishment and composition of Civil Service Commission.

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10.5.  Functions of Civil Service Commission.

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10.6.  Ambassadors and other principal representatives of Zimbabwe.

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10.7.  Permanent Secretaries.

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Chapter 11

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Security Services

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Part 1

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General Provisions

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11.1.  National security.

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11.2.  Security services.

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11.3.  Conduct of members of security services.

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11.4.  National Security Council.

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11.5.  Independent complaints mechanism.

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Part 2

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Defence Forces

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11.6.  Defence Forces.

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11.7.  Function of Defence Forces.

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11.8.  Deployment of Defence Forces.

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11.9.  Political accountability for deployment of Defence Forces.

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11.10.  Minister responsible for Defence Forces.

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11.11.  Command of Defence Forces.

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11.12.  Establishment and composition of Defence Service Commission.

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11.13.  Functions of Defence Service Commission.

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Part 3

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Police Service

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11.14.  Police Service and its functions.

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11.15.  Minister responsible for Police Service.

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11.16.  Commissioner-General of Police.

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11.17.  Establishment and composition of Police Service Commission.

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11.18.  Functions of Police Service Commission.

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Part 4

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Intelligence Services

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11.19.  Establishment of intelligence services.

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11.20.  Minister responsible for intelligence services.

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11.21.  Command or control of intelligence services.

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Part 5

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Correctional Service

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11.22.  Correctional Service and its functions.

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11.23.  Minister responsible for Correctional Service.

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11.24.  Commissioner-General of Correctional Service.

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11.25.  Establishment and composition of Correctional Service Commission.

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11.26.  Functions of Correctional Service Commission.

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CHAPTER 12

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Independent Commissions Supporting Democracy

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Part 1

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General

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12.1.  Independent Commissions.

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12.2.  Objectives of independent Commissions.

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12.3.  Staff of independent Commissions.

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12.4.  Independence of Commissions.

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12.5.  Members of independent Commissions to be non-political.

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12.6.  Removal from office of members of independent Commissions.

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Part 2

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Zimbabwe Electoral Commission

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12.7.  Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Electoral Commission.

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12.8.  Functions of Zimbabwe Electoral Commission.

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12.9.  Disqualifications for appointment to Zimbabwe Electoral Commission.

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12.10.  Zimbabwe Electoral Commission to report on elections and referendums.

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Part 3

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Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission

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12.11.  Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission.

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12.12.  Functions of Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission.

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12.13.  Reports to and by Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission.

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Part 4

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Zimbabwe Gender Commission

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12.14.  Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Gender Commission.

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12.15.  Functions of Zimbabwe Gender Commission.

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12.16.  Reports by Zimbabwe Gender Commission.

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Part 5

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Zimbabwe Media Commission

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12.17.  Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Media Commission.

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12.18.  Functions of Zimbabwe Media Commission.

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12.19.  Reports of Zimbabwe Media Commission.

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Part 6

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National Peace and Reconciliation Commission

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12.20.  Establishment and composition of National Peace and Reconciliation Commission.

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12.21.  Functions of National Peace and Reconciliation Commission.

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12.22.  Reports of National Peace and Reconciliation Commission.

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Chapter 13

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Institutions to Combat Corruption and Crime

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Part 1

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Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission

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13.1.  Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission.

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13.2.  Functions of Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission.

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13.3.  Application of certain provisions of Chapter 12 to Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission.

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13.4.  Reports by Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission.

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Part 2

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National Prosecuting Authority

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13.5.  Establishment and functions of National Prosecuting Authority.

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13.6.  Prosecutor-General and other officers.

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13.7.  Independence of Prosecutor-General.

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13.8.  Conduct of officers of National Prosecuting Authority.

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13.9.  Prosecutor-General to report annually to Parliament.

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13.10.  Other powers of prosecution.

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Chapter 14

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Provincial and Local Government

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Part 1

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Preliminary

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14.1.  Devolution of governmental powers and responsibilities.

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14.2.  General principles of provincial and local government.

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14.3.  Conduct of employees of provincial and local governments.

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Part 2

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Provinces and Provincial and Metropolitan Councils

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14.4.  Provinces and districts of Zimbabwe.

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14.5.  Provincial councils.

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14.6.  Metropolitan councils.

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14.7.  Functions of provincial and metropolitan councils.

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14.8.  Committees of provincial and metropolitan councils.

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14.9.  Provincial Governors.

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14.10.  General provisions relating to provincial and metropolitan councils.

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Part 3

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Local Government

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14.11.  Urban local authorities

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14.12.  Local authorities for rural areas.

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14.13.  Functions of local authorities.

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14.14.  Elections to local authorities.

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14.15.  Tenure of seats of members of local authorities.

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14.16.  Procedure of local authorities.

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CHAPTER 15

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Traditional Leaders

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15.1.  Traditional leadership.

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15.2.  Principles to be observed by traditional leaders.

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15.3.  Functions of traditional leaders.

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15.4.  Appointment and removal of traditional leaders.

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15.5.  Remuneration and benefits of traditional leaders.

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15.6.  Councils of Chiefs.

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15.7.  Functions of Councils of Chiefs.

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15.8.  Integrity and Ethics Committee.

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Chapter 16

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Agricultural Land

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16.1.  Interpretation in Chapter 16.

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16.2.  Principles guiding policy on agricultural land.

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16.3.  Continuation of rights of State in agricultural land.

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16.4.  Continuation of rights of occupiers of agricultural land.

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16.5.  Security of tenure for occupiers of agricultural land.

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16.6.  Alienation of agricultural land by State.

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16.7.  Alienation of agricultural land by owners or occupiers.

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16.8.  Compensation for acquisition of previously-acquired agricultural land.

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16.9.  Establishment and composition of Zimbabwe Land Commission.

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16.10.  Functions of Zimbabwe Land Commission.

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Chapter 17

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Finance

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Part 1

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Financial Management

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17.1.  Principles of public financial management.

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17.2.  Parliamentary oversight of State revenues and expenditure.

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17.3.  Limits of State borrowings, public debt and State guarantees.

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17.4.  Allocation of revenues between national, provincial and local tiers of government.

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Part 2

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Consolidated Revenue Fund

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17.5.  Consolidated Revenue Fund.

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17.6.  Withdrawals from Consolidated Revenue Fund.

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17.7.  Charges upon Consolidated Revenue Fund.

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Part 3

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Authorisation of Expenditure from Consolidated Revenue Fund

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17.8.  Appropriations from Consolidated Revenue Fund.

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17.9.  Authorisation of expenditure in advance of appropriation.

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17.10.  Unauthorised expenditure.

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Part 4

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Safeguarding of Public Funds and Property

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17.11.  Duties of custodians of public funds and property.

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Part 5

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Auditor-General

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17.12.  Auditor-General and his or her functions.

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17.13.  Appointment of Auditor-General.

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17.14.  Independence of Auditor-General.

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17.15.  Remuneration of Auditor-General.

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17.16.  Removal of Auditor-General from office.

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17.17.  Staff of Auditor-General.

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Part 6

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General

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17.18.  Procurement and other governmental contracts.

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17.19.  Management of statutory bodies.

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17.20.  Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe.

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Chapter 18

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General and Supplementary Provisions

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Part 1

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General Provisions as to Commissions

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18.1.  Application of Part 1.

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18.2.  Commissions to be bodies corporate.

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18.3.  Membership of Commissions and conditions of service of members.

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18.4.  Functions and procedure of Commissions.

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18.5.  Funding of Commissions.

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18.6.  Commissions to report annually to Parliament.

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Part 2

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General

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18.7.  Diligent performance of constitutional obligations.

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18.8   Funding of constitutional bodies and other institutions.

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18.9.  Customary international law.

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18.10.  International conventions, treaties and agreements.

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18.11.  Amendment of Constitution.

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18.12.  Commencement of Constitution, transitional provisions and savings.

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Part 3

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Interpretation

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18.13.  Application of Part 3.

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18.14.  General principles of interpretation of the Constitution.

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18.15.  Definitions.

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18.16.  References to Chapters, sections, etc.

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18.17.  Words in singular to include plural, and vice versa.

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18.18.  Tables and headings.

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18.19.  References to time.

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18.20.  References to holders of office.

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18.21.  References to Parliament.

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18.22.  Advice and consultation.

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18.23.  Appointments.

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18.24.  Resignations.

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18.25.  Exercise of functions, etc.

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18.26.  When person not regarded as holding public office.

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18.27.  Quorum and effect of vacancies in constitutional bodies.

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18.28.  Inconsistencies between different texts of Constitution.

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          First Schedule:  National Flag, National Anthem, National Coat of Arms and Public Seal.

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          Second Schedule:  Limitations on Rights During Public Emergencies.

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          Third Schedule:  Oaths and Affirmations.

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          Fourth Schedule:  Qualifications for Voters.

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          Fifth Schedule:  Procedure as to Bills and Other Matters in Parliament.

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          Sixth Schedule:  Commencement of Constitution, Transitional Provisions and Savings.

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Preamble

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_______

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We the people of Zimbabwe,

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United in our diversity by our common desire for freedom, justice and equality, and our heroic resistance to colonialism, racism and all forms of domination and oppression,

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Exalting and extolling the brave men and women who sacrificed their lives during the Chimurenga / Umvukela and national liberation struggles,

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Honouring our forebears and compatriots who toiled for the progress of our country,

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Recognising the need to entrench democracy, good, transparent and accountable governance and the rule of law,

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Reaffirming our commitment to upholding and defending fundamental human rights and freedoms,

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Acknowledging the richness of our natural resources,

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Celebrating the vibrancy of our traditions and cultures,

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Determined to overcome all challenges and obstacles that impede our progress,

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Cherishing freedom, equality, peace, justice, tolerance, prosperity and patriotism in search of new frontiers under a common destiny,

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Acknowledging the supremacy of Almighty God, in whose hands our future lies,

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Resolve by the tenets of this Constitution to commit ourselves to build a united, just and prosperous nation, founded on values of transparency, equality, freedom, fairness, honesty and the dignity of hard work,

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And, imploring the guidance and support of Almighty God, hereby make this Constitution and commit ourselves to it as the fundamental law of our beloved land.

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CHAPTER 1

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Founding Provisions

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1    The Republic

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Zimbabwe is a unitary, democratic and sovereign republic.

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2    Supremacy of Constitution

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(1) This Constitution is the supreme law of Zimbabwe and any law, practice, custom or conduct inconsistent with it is invalid to the extent of the inconsistency.

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(2) The obligations imposed by this Constitution are binding on every person, natural or juristic, including the State and all executive, legislative and judicial institutions and agencies of government at every level, and must be fulfilled by them.

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3    Founding values and principles

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(1) Zimbabwe is founded on respect for the following values and principles—

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       (a)   supremacy of the Constitution;

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       (b)   the rule of law;

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       (c)   fundamental human rights and freedoms;

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       (d)   the nation’s diverse cultural and traditional values;

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       (e)   recognition of the inherent dignity and worth of each human being;

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       (f)   recognition of the equality of all human beings;

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       (g)   gender equality;  and

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       (h)   good governance.

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(2) The principles of good governance, which bind the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level, include—

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       (a)   a multi-party system of democratic government;

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       (b)   an electoral system based on—

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                  (i)   universal adult suffrage;

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                 (ii)   free, fair and regular elections;  and

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                (iii)   adequate representation of the electorate;

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       (c)   the orderly transfer of power following elections;

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       (d)   respect for the rights of all political parties;

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       (e)   observance of the principle of separation of powers;

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       (f)   respect for the people of Zimbabwe, from whom the authority to govern is derived;

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       (g)   transparency, justice, accountability and responsiveness;

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       (h)   the fostering of national unity, peace and stability, with due regard to diversity of languages, customary practices and traditions;

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        (i)   recognition of the rights of—

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                  (i)   ethnic, racial, cultural, linguistic and religious groups;

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                 (ii)   persons with disabilities;

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        (j)   the equitable sharing of national resources, including land;

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       (k)   due respect for vested rights;  and

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        (l)   the devolution of governmental power and functions.

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4    National Flag, National Anthem, Public Seal and Coat of arms

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Zimbabwe has a National Flag, a National Anthem, a Coat of Arms and a Public Seal, which are set out in the First Schedule.

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5    Tiers of government

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The tiers of government in Zimbabwe are—

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       (a)   the national Government;

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       (b)   provincial and metropolitan councils;  and

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       (c)   local authorities, that is to say—

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                  (i)   urban councils, by whatever name called, to represent and manage the affairs of people in urban areas; and

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                 (ii)   rural councils, by whatever name called, to represent and manage the affairs of
people in rural areas within the districts into which the provinces are divided.

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6    Languages

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(1) The following languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda and Xhosa, are the official languages of Zimbabwe.

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(2) An Act of Parliament may prescribe other languages as official languages and may prescribe languages of record.

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(3) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must—

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       (a)   ensure that all official languages are treated equitably;  and

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       (b)   take into account the language preferences of people affected by governmental measures or communications.

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(4) The State must promote and advance the use of all languages used in Zimbabwe, including sign language, and must create conditions for the development of those languages.

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7    Promotion of public awareness of the Constitution

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The State must promote public awareness of this Constitution, in particular by—

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       (a)   translating it into all official languages and disseminating it as widely as possible;

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       (b)   requiring this Constitution to be taught in schools and as part of the curricula for the training of members of the security services, the Civil Service and members and employees of public institutions;  and

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       (c)   encouraging all persons and organisations, including civic organisations, to disseminate awareness and knowledge of this Constitution throughout society.

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Chapter 2

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National Objectives

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2.1 Objectives to guide all institutions and agencies of State and Government

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(1) The objectives set out in this Chapter guide the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level, in formulating and implementing laws and policy decisions that will lead to the establishment and promotion of a just, free and democratic society in which people can enjoy prosperous, happy and fulfilled lives.

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(2) Regard must be had to the objectives set out in this Chapter when interpreting the State’s obligations under this Constitution and any other law.

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2.2 Good governance

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(1) The State must adopt and implement policies and legislation to develop efficiency, competence, accountability, transparency, personal integrity and financial probity in Government at every level and in every public institution, and in particular—

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       (a)   appointments to public offices must be made primarily on the basis of merit;

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       (b)   measures must be taken to expose, combat and eradicate all forms of corruption and abuse of power by those holding political and other public offices.

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(2) The State must ensure that all institutions and agencies of government at every level, in particular Commissions and other bodies established by or under this Constitution, are provided with adequate resources and facilities to enable them to carry out their functions conscientiously, effectively, fairly, impartially, honestly and efficiently.

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2.3 National unity, peace and stability

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The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level, and all citizens of Zimbabwe, must promote national unity, peace and stability.

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2.4 Fostering of fundamental rights and freedoms

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The State must take all practical measures to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms enshrined in Chapter 4 and to promote their full realisation and fulfilment.

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2.5 Foreign policy

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(1) The foreign policy of Zimbabwe must be based on the following principles—

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       (a)   the promotion and protection of the national interests of Zimbabwe;

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       (b)   respect for international law;

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       (c)   peaceful co-existence with other nations;  and

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       (d)   the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means.

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(2) The State must promote regional and pan-African cultural, economic and political co-operation and integration and must participate in international and regional organisations that stand for peace and the well-being and progress of the region, the continent and humanity.

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2.6 Development and empowerment

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(1) All State and institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour to facilitate rapid and equitable development, and in particular must take measures to—

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       (a)   promote private initiative and self-reliance;

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       (b)   foster agricultural, commercial, industrial, technological and scientific development;

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       (c)   foster the development of industrial and commercial enterprises in order to empower citizens of Zimbabwe;

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       (d)   bring about balanced development of the different areas of Zimbabwe, in particular a proper balance in the development of rural and urban areas;  and

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       (e)   rectify imbalances resulting from past practices and policies.

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(2) Measures referred to in this section must involve the people in the formulation and implementation of development plans and programmes that affect them.

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(3) Measures referred to in this section must protect and enhance the right of the people, particularly women, to equal opportunities in development.

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(4) The State must ensure that local communities benefit from the resources in their areas.

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2.7 Food security

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The State must—

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       (a)   encourage people to grow and store adequate food;

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       (b)   secure the establishment of adequate food reserves;  and

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       (c)   encourage and promote adequate and proper nutrition through mass education and other appropriate means.

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2.8 Culture

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(1) All State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must promote and preserve cultural values and practices which enhance the dignity, well-being and equality of Zimbabweans.

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(2) All